28 5.4 The Cognitive and Affective Domains of Curricula
The Cognitive Domain of Curricula
The cognitive domain of curricula deals with how students gain knowledge. In today’s schools, this is often achieved by dividing the knowledge into separate content areas. In this model, the different content areas are taught independently of supporting student emotions or social skills; therefore, in this model, instruction is contained to content-specific facts and skills.
The idea of subject-centered instruction separates instruction into distinct content areas. The skills and content contributing to the curriculum vary by subject. While this model was adopted in the United States in the 1870s, it is still in practice today, especially at the secondary level. The pros and cons of this model were outlined by Ornstein (1982).
|Pros of subject-centered Instruction||Cons of subject-centered instruction|
|Subjects are a logical way to organize and interpret learning.||The curriculum is fragmented, and concepts are learned in isolation.|
|Such organization makes it easier for people to remember information for future use.||It deemphasizes life experiences and fails to consider students’ needs and interests.|
|Teachers (in secondary schools, at least) are trained as subject-matter specialists.||The teacher dominates the lesson, allowing little student input.|
|Textbooks and other teaching materials are usually organized by subject.||The emphasis is on using lower-order thinking skills like teaching knowledge and recalling facts.|
The core curriculum emphasizes knowledge within the subject areas that all students should learn. People in favor of having a core curriculum believe that all students should know a common body of knowledge. This model takes a more interdisciplinary approach to ensure that all prescribed content is covered.
Mastery learning includes multiple educational practices based on the principle that if students are given adequate time to study and have appropriate instruction, most students can meet the learning standards set for the course. Mastery learning is based on acknowledging the differing rate of time that students take to master the material. Theoretically speaking, there could be the possibility that all students will be learning at different paces, and the teacher will have to attend to the differences in the pace of instruction of all of their students (Block & Anderson, 1974).
The Affective Domain of Curricula
The Affective domain of curricula emphasizes feeling and value in education. This is the aspect of the curriculum that emphasizes emotions and motivation. This domain is rooted in the belief that schools have responsibilities beyond instruction delivery. In this domain, the information is presented in a manner that guides students to see the value in the things they are learning in the classroom to help the students see the value in the material covered in the course. It is the goal to make a lasting impression on the students, eliciting an emotional response from the students. The affective domain of curricula also attempts to address concepts such as morality, character building, resiliency, empathy, and perseverance by modeling and promoting good citizenship in the classroom (Miller, 2005)
A student-centered curriculum emphasizes students’ interests and needs. Students take a more active role in their own learning in student-centered instruction. The students construct their own knowledge with the teacher’s assistance (Ornstein, 1982). The Progressive philosophy of education informs the student-centered curriculum. Teachers who identify with this philosophy believe that students tend to be more motivated to engage with the material in a more meaningful way by focusing on students’ needs and personal interests.
Humanistic learning focuses on student mastery and personal growth. Humanistic learning objectives strive to instill a set of values and feelings in the students. The humanistic model focuses on the importance of cultivating the human potential. Humanists seek a higher sense of consciousness in the students and enhancement of the mind (Ornstein, 1982).
Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy that is structured around small groups comprised of students with varying ability levels. Cooperative learning incorporates various learning experiences to enhance their understanding of a particular topic. In some cases, members of each group are assigned tasks. These tasks are then shared with students in other groups. In this model, students take on the role of the learner as well as the teacher (Johnson & Johnson, 1999). The jigsaw model is an excellent way to engage students in this learning type.
Broad Fields Curriculum
Broad fields design responds to the lack of integration under subject-centered design. Many educators feel that curricula in the subject–centered model is too compartmentalized. The students sometimes have difficulty making interdisciplinary connections between the different subjects. The drawback with this interdisciplinary model is combining so many subjects; students get knowledge that is less in-depth in comparison to the deeper content of a single subject. (Barnett, 2009)
This movement originated in private child-centered schools and impacted the public elementary school curriculum. This advocated carefully planned activities tied to a child’s needs and interests. This teaching strategy acted as the basis of emerging teaching strategies that included life experiences, field trips, and group activities (Ornstein, 1982).
Stakeholders and Curricular Decision Making
Parents, Schools, and Communities
Parents can be the most valuable influences on the curriculum adopted at the local level. The Board of Education adopts the curriculum, but the parents are the taxpayers in the district, so they have a vested interest in how their children are taught. This input can be made through contacting individual teachers and/or the administration to shape their children’s educations.
Special Interest Groups
Special interest groups advocate for particular policies and focus on education. These groups can be comprised of people from a specific culture, ethnicity, or religious group. They may lobby for education changes through a political lens based on their political party affiliation.
Public schools are funded by taxpayer dollars and governed by their respective states and departments of education. State legislators tend to focus on what best meets the needs of all students. State legislatures play a vital role in education because they set the state budget for education and pass laws about the educational system statewide. Some policies are influenced by state legislators and the state’s education department.
The school’s influence revolves around the philosophical picture of what schools should accomplish and the practical picture of what to do with the students today. Colleges often share their expectations for incoming students so that K-12 teachers can make students college or career-ready.
Textbooks and Testing Companies
The states that represent the greatest possible business for the publishers can have tremendous influence over the content of the books. California and Texas, for example, account for approximately 20 percent of the textbook market.
Standards: The Common Core State Standards
Full implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) happened in 2014. To date, 46 states have agreed to a set of voluntary K-12 state standards in English language arts/literacy and mathematics, and efforts are ongoing to establish future standards for science and social studies. The goal of the CCSS is to provide a clear, consistent understanding of what students are expected to learn. They reflect the knowledge and skills required for successful entry into college and careers.